But the importance of reading is not limited to just these benefits. [122] Also, a German study of 50 kindergartens compared children who, at age 5, had spent a year either "academically focused", or "play-arts focused" and found that in time the two groups became inseparable in reading skill. The goal is to "increase teacher knowledge and implementation of evidence-based practices to positively impact student literacy achievement".[113]. Novice readers continue to develop their phonemic awareness, and come to realise that the letters (graphemes) connect to the sounds (phonemes) of the language; known as decoding and the alphabetic principle. Whole language has the reputation of being a meaning-based method of teaching reading that emphasizes literature and text comprehension. More fully, it a cognitive process of understanding information represented by printed or written language. : C.W.W. Reading has at all times and in all ages been a source of knowledge, of happiness, of pleasure and even moral courage. For example, in Japanese, the On-reading of the kanji 民 is min and the related kanji 眠 shares the same On-reading, min: the right-hand part shows the character's pronunciation. Sometimes mnemonic cards containing individual sounds are used to allow the student to practice saying the sounds that are related to a letter or letters (e.g. Overall, children who are directly taught phonics are better at reading, spelling and comprehension. The importance of 3/10 speaking skills, hence is enormous for the learners of any language. [244][245][246]. Maman has her students require instructor permission to allow the girls' parents to marry their daughters early. Learning is emphasized more than teaching. This disparity was even starker in previous decades: from 1970 to 2000, the global gender gap in literacy would decrease by roughly 50%. As the Bronze Age collapsed, the Aramaeans moved into Canaan and Phoenician territories and adopted their scripts. The educational psychologist, G. Michael Pressley, concluded there are two important aids to fluent comprehension: explicit instruction in major content areas by a child's teacher, and the child's own desire to read. The examples above each spell the word kanji, which is made up of two kanji characters: æ¼¢ (kan, written in hiragana as かん), and 字 (ji, written in hiragana as じ). 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