To improve the conventional retting process in stagnant water, a microbial consortium trade marked as ‘CRIJAF Sona’ has been developed by ICAR-CRIJAF which reduced retting duration by 6 … The production of hemp in Western countries is growing steadily to meet the growing interest in sustainable textiles. Chemical retting involves immersion of the dried plants in a tank with a solution of chemicals, such as sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, high pH agents, pectinolytic enzymes or mineral acids. It grows best under traditional farming methods where the crops are rotated and fields are allowed to lay fallow; it also benefits from a longer lifespan. The process involving the recognition of phage to bacterium is called landing. In double retting, a gentle process producing excellent fibre, the stalks are removed from the water before retting i… It requires far less use of pesticides and artificial fertilizers. They are also cultivating nettles in both the Czech Republic and Lithuania. Flax and ramie strands, however, are usually separated into individual fibre cells, or true plant fibres. The fibres are produced from the bark or stalks of the plant which is harvested on average two to three times each year, although under some growing conditions may be harvested up to six times in a year. It holds its shape well and does not wrinkle easily. Fibers are obtained from flax stems by the process of retting. The emerging uses for it today span engineering applications, insulation paper and clothing grade cloth as well as providing vegetable oil from the seeds. During harvesting, the plant stalks are cut off close to the base or pulled up. Bamboo planting can slow deforestation, providing an alternative source of timber for the construction industry and cellulose fibre for the textile industry. The quality of the final linen yarn and fabric is dependent upon the growing conditions, harvesting methods and whether it is a short fibre known as tow or the more desirable long line fibre. Simply put, retting is a plant fibre-extraction process in which fibre-rich plants are made subject to decomposition via heavily exposing it to moisture which promotes microbial activity. Microbes are used in retting to obtain bast fibres. The water, penetrating to the central stalk portion, swells the inner cells, bursting the outermost layer, thus increasing absorption of both moisture and decay-producing bacteria. Sativa which is commonly known as Industrial hemp and is the term given to the variety grown for fibre and other non drug related purposes. This bast fibre is then spun into a yarn, and in fine counts the resulting yarn has a silky touch. It is second only to soy in its nutritional value, is highly digestible and an effective unsaturated oil. After hackling, washing and drying (in the shade) the fibres are loosened manually and cleaned. Retting of fibres is caused by [JIPMER 1987]A) BacillusB) ClostridiumC) NitrobacterD) Rhizobium - Brainly.in. It is native to the tropical and sub tropical monsoon regions of the world, and flourishes during the rainy season. It is used in areas of internal body parts where its strength and lightness of weight make the vehicles more fuel-efficient and thus a better ecological proposition. The same manufacturing process is used to produce linen fabric from flax or hemp. The plants are long and slender with fibres that are between one and five metres long running the full length of the plant. India produces a variety of hemp known as Sunn or Bombay Hemp. The actual fibres are located between the epidermis, or bark surface, and an inner woody core. As a textile fibre it blends well with both other natural fibres and synthetics and when dyed it retains colour well being both colour and light fast. This regular harvesting is of benefit to the health of the plant and studies have shown that cutting of bamboo canes leads to vigorous re-growth and an increase in the amount of biomass the following year. 1) Meaning of retting = Retting is a process employing the action of micro-organisms and moisture on plants to dissolve or rot away much of the cellular tissues and pectins surrounding bast-fibre bundles, and so facilitating separation of the fibre from the stem. When demand dropped local farmers burnt their crops rather than sell at unsustainable prices, however recently there has been an increase in demand and prices have risen by more than 50%. These closely related bast fibers are derived from Hibiscus cannabinus and H. sabdariffa (mallow family, Malvaceae), respectively. It also produces minimum wastage, as there are several by-products. Ramie has an excellent resistance to abrasion and a tensile strength three to five times stronger than cotton and twice as strong as flax, although it is brittle and will break if consistently folded in the same place. However, within the European Union and Canada a licence has to be issued for its cultivation. Today the major producers are China and India. Not all bacteria isolated fromretted jute are responsible for theprocess, as for instance, seven species of aerobic bacteria were isolated fromretted jute but only oneof them, B. poly- … Once the contact is established between tail fibres of phage and bacterial cell, tail fibres bend to anchor the pins and base plate to the cell surface. Natural flax colours range from shades of ivory, tan and grey. However, it is far less labor intensive and less expensive than water retting. Jute fibres are composed of mainly cellulose but also lignin, which is a wood fibre. It flourishes best in warm humid temperatures but is also able to withstand droughts and can achieve a life span of twenty years. Even when these are used flax requires only one fifth of the pesticides and artificial fertilisers that is required for commercially grown cotton. The two principal plant varieties are: Cannabis sativa L. subsp. Ramie is also an important fabric both woven and knitted for the North American market where it is seen as a cheaper ‘linen look’ alternative. Bamboo is a very-fast growing woody grass that can produce shoots of up to a metre per day. Bacteria are economically important as these microorganisms are used by humans for many purposes. Microbes are used in retting to obtain bast fibres. ( via the viscose process ), and flourishes during the rainy season off close to the tropical sub. Dating back over 4000 years in parts of Africa it was also cultivated in India and Thailand in... 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